Frequently Asked Questions about Hemp-Derived CBD Oil
1. What is CBD?
CBD is cannabidiol, a safe, non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in hemp. CBD is one of the two major cannabinoids found in cannabis plants. There are more than 100 minor cannabinoids also found in the hemp plant. Extractions combining CBD and minor cannabinoids, alongside terpenes, form to make what is known as Full Spectrum CBD.
Because CBD in non-intoxicating, CBD is an appealing option for individuals seeking alternative remedies for everyday issues. According to the World Health Organization CBD is safe even at high doses.
In addition, the World Health Organization reviewed CBD and found it has therapeutic benefit for eighteen aliments ranging from inflammation, pain, anxiety, sleep and other conditions without disconcerting feelings of dysphoria.
CBD has demonstrable antioxidant properties and neuroprotective and neurogenic effects.
Scientific and clinical research—much of it sponsored by the US government—underscores CBD’s potential as a treatment for a wide range of conditions, including epilepsy, arthritis, diabetes, alcoholism, MS, chronic pain, schizophrenia, PTSD, depression, antibiotic-resistant infections, epilepsy, and other neurological disorders. In addition its anti-cancer properties are currently being investigated at several academic research centers in the United States and elsewhere.
CBD has been available for centuries in the forms of hemp extracts; however, only until more recently has scientifically-sound research been conducted. Most studies are in early phases of research trials. While CBD is touted for many benefits, it is not a cure all. More advanced research is needed to determine proper benefits, formulations, dosing, side effects and interactions with other drugs.
We always recommend doing your own research and consulting with your doctor before trying any new wellness product. Do not take if you are pregnant or lactating.
2. What are cannabinoids?
Cannabinoids are compounds extracted from the cannabis and hemp plant. High concentrations of cannabinoids are found in the floral material of cannabis, with the hemp plant producing high concentrations of the non-intoxicating cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD).
Beyond CBD there are 100+ other non-intoxicating minor cannabinoids found in the floral material of the hemp plant. Other cannabinoids include cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), cannabivarian (CBDV), cannabidiolic-acid (CBDA), THCV (tetrahydrocannabivarian (THCV) and more. Like CBD, these minor cannabinoids also have varying levels of therapeutic benefit; however, more research is needed to determine their efficacy.
Cannabinoids, like CBD and those mentioned above, interact with receptors in the human body's endocannabinoid system, as well as other systems within the body including our Adenosine receptors and Serotonin receptors.
3. What is the Endocannabinoid System?
The recently discovered Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is found in the human body's Central and Peripheral Nervous System. The Endocannabinoid System is responsible for maintaining homeostatic action in the body, like mood, memory, appetite, thermoregulation, sleep and more.
The Endocannabinoid System consists mainly of neurons, receptors and endogenous cannabinoids that form the system. To date, the Endocannabinoid System comprises of CB1 and CB2 receptors. These receptors are attached to neurons and regularly receive endogenous cannabinoids.
However, unlike many systems within the body, endogenous cannabinoids are produced in an on-demand fashion and travel in a reverse manner, attaching to receptors on pre-synaptic neurons. The attachment of these endogenous cannabinoids to their receptors creates responses within the body that may balance feelings of mood, appetite, sleep and more.
These endogenous receptors can also receive phytocannabinoids like hemp-derived cannabinoids, that mimic endogenous cannabinoids and can serve as a supplement to our endocannabinoid system in times of need.
CB1 and CB2 receptors are considered to be receptors within the "Classical Endocannabinoid System." Beyond these two receptors, other receptors exist and interact with cannabinoids but have not been officially adopted as cannabinoid receptors by the scientific community. These receptors include TRP and GPR55.
More recently, scientists have found that cannabidiol, or CBD, most commonly interacts with receptors and systems outside CB1 and CB2 receptors. CBD interacts with TRP, GPR55, Serotonin and Adenosine receptors.
TRP is a transient receptor potential channel. There are about 30 TRP channels within the body which regulated pain, temperature, vision, taste and pressure. It is likely that cannabinoids received through the skin interact with TRP channels, as well as, in some cases, CB2 receptors.
GPR55 is referred to as a G-coupled protein receptor. Alongside GPR55, GPR119 and GPR18, also interact with cannabinoids. Early research suggests that targeting this receptor may provide treatments for inflammation, pain and anti-cancer effects.
Serotonin receptors exist mainly in the gut, with 90% of Serotonin receptors present in this area. Like GPR55, Serotonin receptors are also G-coupled protein receptors. Serotonin receptors tend to influences various biological responses throughout the body including, mood, appetite, nausea, anxiety, cognition, sleep and more. Cannabinoids, like CBD, may interact with these receptors, particularly if ingested orally.
Adenosine receptors also receive cannabinoids like CBD. Four Adenosine receptors are found within the body. Each receptor is responsible for varying degrees of interaction. A1 and A2A are found within the central nervous system, working with the heart to regulate oxygen and blood flow. Both A1 and A2A also mediate the release of neurotransmitters like dopamine. In addition, A2A mediates inflammatory response within the body.
Conversely Adenosine receptors A2B and A3 are found in the peripheral nervous system and mostly are responsible for bodily processes like inflammation and immune function.
Cannabinoids, like CBD, interacts with systems like the Endocannabinoid System and receptors not found within the ECS like Adenosine, Serotonin, TRP and GPR55. Cannabinoids may turn on or off the functions of these receptors, creating enhanced or de-sensitized reactions in the body. This can aid in balancing the body's imbalance.
4. Is CBD oil legal?
If CBD is sourced from the legal hemp plant, then yes, CBD is legal under the 2018 Farm Bill. The 2018 Farm Bill defined hemp as "the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of that plant, including the seeds thereof and all derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts, and salts of isomers, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis."
The language in this federal law removed hemp, as defined above, from the Controlled Substances Act and added the plant to the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. Because the definition of hemp included "any part of the plant," including extracts and cannabinoids specifically defined, any CBD products derived from hemp are federally legal for sale, use and interstate commerce.
This bill allocated jurisdiction of hemp production into the hands of the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and ingestible hemp products into the hands of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Companies growing hemp should follow guidelines established by the USDA. Companies manufacturing CBD should follow FDA procedures to ensure safety is met for products sold on the open market.
However, because this law is new, the FDA has not taken action against bad actors. We encourage you to do your research to find the best CBD oil products for your needs. That is why we have curated a market of vetted and verified, premium and legal, hemp-derived CBD products.
For more information on legal actions of hemp over the last two decades, continue reading:
Prior to the 2018 Farm Bill, CBD was legal in a grey market, but many problems still arose with certain administrations attempting to over-regulate the hemp pilot research program. Section 7606 of the 2014 United States Farm Bill defined hemp as "any part of the plant, whether growing or not" meaning any part including the seeds, fiber and floral material. This included extracted hemp products that contained CBD but had less than 0.3 percent of THC (the intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis) that had been sourced from a legal source (ie. industrial hemp grown as part of Sec 7606 pilot program).
In addition, on February 6, 2004 the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals issued a unanimous decision in favor of the Hemp Industries Association (HIA) in which Judge Betty Fletcher wrote, "They (the DEA) cannot regulate naturally-occurring THC not contained within or derived from marijuana-i.e. non-psychoactive hemp is not included in Schedule I. The DEA has no authority to regulate drugs that are not scheduled, and it has not followed procedures required to schedule a substance. The DEA's definition of "THC" contravenes the unambiguously expressed intent of Congress in the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and cannot be upheld".
On September 28, 2004, the HIA claimed victory after DEA declined to appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States the ruling from the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals protecting the sale of hemp foods. Agricultural hemp remains legal for import and sale in the United States. Since 2004, hemp food products have been Federally legal in accordance with the Federal law of the land.
5. What is the difference between CBD oil and hemp oil?
CBD oil is commonly referred to as hemp oil, and the terms can be used interchangeably; however, there is also a cold-pressed hemp oil that comes from the seed of the plant and does not contain CBD.
When shopping for CBD products that are labeled as hemp oil, look for a mg concentration (ex. 500mg), this denotes a concentration of cannabinoids, like CBD, in the hemp oil bottle.
6. Does hemp extract contain CBD?
Hemp Extract is a combination of CBD and other cannabinoids that are formed to create a Full Spectrum CBD blended extract produced from agricultural hemp cultivars. This hemp extract is commonly mixed with carriers like cold-pressed hemp seed oil or MCT oil as well as terpenes.
7. What is Full Spectrum CBD Oil?
Full Spectrum CBD is a combination of cannabidiol (CBD) and other minor cannabinoids. These cannabinoids may include but are not limited to cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabidiolic-acid (CBDa), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), tetrahydrocannabinolic-acid (THCa) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
Full Spectrum CBD also includes terpenes and flavinoids found in the hemp plant. These compounds may aid in the formation of an "entourage effect." The term Full Spectrum CBD is sometimes considered a "whole plant extract." This means all cannabinoids, terpenes and flavinoids found in the hemp cultivar were extracted and transferred into a finished product.
Full Spectrum CBD normally contains trace quantities of THC, but at levels below 0.3% by concentration.
CBD isolate is not Full Spectrum CBD.
8. What is CBD isolate?
CBD isolate is pure CBD. CBD is extracted from the plant then undergoes an additional selection process to extract and crystallize the CBD into 99.4% pure CBD. CBD isolate does not contain other cannabinoids, terpenes or flavinoids.
9. What are terpenes?
Terpenes are naturally-occurring, organic aromatic hydrocarbons found in the cannabis plant and other conifers.
Terpenes are responsible for the potent smell cannabis and conifers produce. Many products, like Pine-Sol for instance, use synthetic terpenes to create smells found in products.
Terpenes found in Full Spectrum CBD often naturally occurring terpenes. These terpenes often combine with cannabinoids to create an "entourage effect." Naturally-occurring terpenes are found in almost every plant, and have varying degrees of benefit.
Some popular terpenes commonly found in hemp-derived CBD include: myrcene, alpha-pinene, limonene, and beta-caryophyllene.
While terpenes have been available as extracts for decades but only more recently have they been researched for therapeutic benefit.
CBD isolate does not contain terpenes.
10. What is the "Entourage Effect?"
The Entourage Effect is a theory first coined by Cannabinoid Scientist, Dr. Ethan Russo in his paper, Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects.
This theory highlights that terpenes are needed in conjunction with certain cannabinoid compounds in order to more effectively interact with the human body.
This theory supports the efficacy of Full Spectrum CBD Oil, and disproves the efficacy of CBD isolate, which does not contain terpenes.
11. How much CBD oil should I take?
It is hard to specify how much CBD oil a person should take, because everyone is different. A common serving size is 10mg to 15mg as a starting point, then increasing until you find your desired effect.
12. What are the side effects of CBD oil?
The great thing about CBD and other cannabinoids is that there are few negative side effects associated with ingesting CBD oil products.
Some side effects that may arise include fatigue, nausea, low blood pressure or diarrhea. If you find that CBD oil has caused you symptoms of diarrhea, this normally resolves itself within three (3) days of ingestion.
13. What is the best way to take CBD oil?
The best way to take CBD oil normally depends on the person and its use. CBD oil (tinctures) and softgels or capsules, are commonly used for internal purposes.
Conversely, topicals and skin care are meant for external applications, but can still activate receptors within the body, likely TRP receptors and CB2 receptors if mixed with permeation enhancers that help move the CBD into the blood stream.
When orally ingesting CBD, it is best to consume the product after a meal or a high fat snack. This will improve bioavailability by three (3) to five (5) times the rate.
14. Does CBD oil contain THC?
Most hemp-derived CBD products will contain THC; however, by law hemp-derived products must contain less than 0.3% THC by concentration.
Some CBD products remove THC from the blended extract, but keep the other cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavinoids in the CBD spectrum.
CBD isolate also contains zero THC, but does not contain other minor cannabinoids, terpenes or flavinoids.
15. What is in my CBD oil product?
CBD oil products normally contain CBD, minor cannabinoids and terpenes. In addition, almost always, CBD is mixed with a carrier oil.
CBD is mixed with a carrier oil because CBD is fat soluble, meaning when CBD is carried with other fatty oils, the oils help carry the CBD throughout the body, so it can hit the receptors it needs to function properly.
Carrier oils help make CBD more effective.
16. Will I fail a drug test if I take CBD oil?
CBD is not a drug; however, taking any CBD product may cause a positive drug test. In addition, we cannot guarantee you will pass a drug test after taking CBD oil products, even if they are labeled as zero THC or CBD isolate.
We can give you guidance on best practices in the case a drug test arises.
When it comes to drug testing, there is a two step process. The first step, called the "initial test" has a limit of 50ng/ml of "marjiuana metabolites" or THCA. Commonly CBD and other cannabinoids are lumped into this category, which can trigger a positive test.
If you fail the initial test, there is a second test that you can request. This test is called a "confirmatory test." This test has a limit of 15ng/ml of THCA. At this stage, the cannabinoids are separated out. Unless you are taking high concentrations of a full spectrum CBD oil, you may not trigger a positive test.
In any case, we recommend that when you go in to take the test you bring the product with the receipt. All our products are legal hemp with less than 0.3% THC by concentration; therefore, if you happen to fail the test, you could ask for the confirmatory test and if you still failed, you would have proof that you are taking a legal hemp-derived product.*
*This is not a guarantee. It is the sole decision of your company as to whether they accept proof of receipt.
17. What part of the plant produces CBD?
CBD and other cannabinoids are primarily produced in the floral material of the plant.
Some cannabinoids may appear in the fiber, leaves or seed of the plant; however, the concentrations of these cannabinoids is so low, extraction from these parts of the plant would not be economical.
18. What extraction method is best for CBD?
Because hemp has been federally regulated for the last 80 years, research is still underway to determine the best extraction method for producing cannabinoids.
The most popular methods include CO2 extraction and ethanol extraction. The most important aspect of extraction is to ensure the end product does not contain residual solvents.
Ensuring the product is residual solvent free is one of the steps in Anavii Market's verification program.
19. What are the health benefits of CBD and other cannabinoids?
As per the FDA, we cannot make medical claims regarding the health benefits of CBD and hemp oil products; however, we encourage you to search on PubMed to find an abundance of information regarding the health benefits of CBD.
In particular, research Patent 6630507 pertaining to "Cannabinoids as an antioxidant and neuroprotectant" held by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
We also encourage you to read through the World Health Organization's report on CBD stating its low potential for abuse with a good safety profile and demonstrated effective treatment for epilepsy with Phase III clinical trials for Epidiolex as well as various other therapeutic benefits.
In 2018, Epidiolex was approved by the FDA as the first CBD-based pharmaceutical for epilepsy.
20. What are the health benefits of hemp foods?
Hemp foods are made from hemp seeds or pressed hemp seed oils and are incredibly nutritious. They offer a wide variety of important health attributes.
Hemp foods like hemp hearts, cold-pressed hemp seed oil and hemp protein are high in protein, all nine essential amino acids that the body desires but does not produce and has a near perfect Omega 6 to Omega 3 ratio.
Hemp foods are high in essential amino acids like arginine, GLA and ALA. Increasing the intake of arginine reduces oxidative stress and the progression of atherosclerosis, or the narrowing of arteries.
Hemp foods provide nutrients essential for a balanced diet. Consuming optimal amounts of Omega 3 and other amino acids are important in preventing nutritional deficiencies, controlling cholesterol, boosting immune functions and optimizing care in the digestive tract.
21. How can I get involved in the hemp industry?
There are lots of ways to get involved in the hemp industry. Before founding Anavii Market, our co-founders, Annie and Jason, each started non-profits in their respective states. In 2012 Jason started the Virginia Industrial Hemp Coalition and in 2015 Annie started Friends of Hemp. You can help these organizations by becoming a member or donating to the causes.
In addition, there are a variety of other non-profits that are working diligently to support the movement, like the US Hemp Roundtable, Hemp Industries Association, Vote Hemp and the National Hemp Association. You can also become a member of these organizations, attend their conferences, or follow and share their content on social media.